## Sound Fields in Marine Waveguides with a Heterogeneous Speed of Sound Along the Depth and Path

## Sound Fields in Marine Waveguides with a Heterogeneous Speed of Sound Along the Depth and Path

### Yu. I. Papkova

During waveguide sound propagation in the marine environment, one of the main characteristics is the speed of sound. In hydrophysical waveguides, the speed of sound is mainly a function of depth; the radial coordinate introduces second-order corrections of smallness. Nevertheless, in some cases, significant changes in the characteristics of the waveguide along the radial coordinate are possible, for example, as a result of the influence of anthropogenic factors, sea currents, etc. In the present paper, an analytical representation is constructed for the sound field of a point source in a plane-layered sea waveguide that has an inhomogeneous speed of sound in depth and waveguide path. The waveguide model has radial symmetry, while the sound source is located at an arbitrary point on the waveguide, which leads to a solution that substantially depends on all three spatial coordinates. This solution is based on the decomposition of the waveguide region into cylindrical regions, allowing the construction of an analytical solution of the Helmholtz equation. It is shown that in the case of a constant profile of sound velocity and density in each of the waveguide decomposition regions, the solution of the problem can be obtained explicitly. The results of numerical modeling are presented, the influence of heterogeneity on the characteristics of the sound field is analyzed

Show Abstract## A Study of Electromagnetic Fields in Conical and Pyramidal Tapered Anechoic Chambers

## A Study of Electromagnetic Fields in Conical and Pyramidal Tapered Anechoic Chambers

### N. P. Balabukha$^1$, N. L. Menshikh$^1$, N. E. Shapkina$^{1,2}$

TTwo types of tapered anechoic chambers have been analyzed by the method of mathematical modeling: conical and pyramidal types. The radar-absorbing coating of the inner surface of both chambers is modeled by a dielectric layer. The electromagnetic field inside the tapered chambers has been calculated by the method of integral equations using the FEKO software. The analysis and comparison of the electromagnetic field distribution in the quiet zone of each chamber have been carried out and the influence of the radiation source position on the distribution of the amplitude and phase of the field has been investigated at different frequencies.

Show Abstract## On the Choice of the Number of Elements of a Parallel Array of Josephson Junctions

## On the Choice of the Number of Elements of a Parallel Array of Josephson Junctions

### N. V. Kolotinskiy$^{1,2}$, V. K. Kornev$^1$

This article considers an analytical approach to the description of the electrodynamic interaction of Josephson junctions in a parallel array. Such an analysis is necessary for the design of differential cells of superconducting quantum arrays and active electrically small antennas based on them. Estimates of the required number of elements in a parallel array of Josephson junctions are presented.

Show Abstract## Adsorption of Fluorinated Fullerene Molecules on Metallic and Semiconducting Surfaces

## Adsorption of Fluorinated Fullerene Molecules on Metallic and Semiconducting Surfaces

### A. I. Oreshkin$^1$, R. Z. Bakhtizin$^2$, D. A. Muzychenko$^1$, S. I. Oreshkin$^3$, V. I. Panov$^1$, M. N. Petukhov$^4$

Scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM/STS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used in this study. The electronic density of states for fluorofullerene molecules on the surface of semiconductors and metals has been calculated ab initio. The behavior of fluorofullerene molecules with different stoichiometric compositions is considered. It has been found that a dipole molecule C$_{60}$F$_{18}$ prefers to be oriented by fluorine atoms towards the semiconductor surface. For a metallic surface, the dipole moment can deviate from the direction of the normal to the surface, which is caused by the balance between the intermolecular interaction and the interaction between the molecule and the surface. Fluorofullerene molecules tend to lose fluorine atoms over time, which allows them to be used as a source of fluorine in the processes of fluorination of metallic surfaces and a local chemical reaction on the semiconducting surface.

Show Abstract## The Maximum Operating Range of a Distributed Sensor Based on a Phase-Sensitive Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer Utilizing Telecommunication Fiber with Reflective Centers

## The Maximum Operating Range of a Distributed Sensor Based on a Phase-Sensitive Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer Utilizing Telecommunication Fiber with Reflective Centers

### D. R. Kharasov$^{1,2}$, D. M. Bengalskii$^{1,3}$, E. A. Fomiryakov$^{1,3}$, O. E. Nanii$^{1,2,3}$, M. A. Bukharin$^1$, S. P. Nikitin$^1$, V. N. Treshchikov$^1$

An optimal arrangement of point reflectors inscribed by femtosecond laser pulses in a standard telecommunication fiber is found, which provides the maximum operating range of distributed sensors based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers (φOTDRs). It is shown that the operating distance of an φOTDR utilizing probe pulses with a duration of 200 ns can be increased by 53 km using ultra-low-loss fiber with an attenuation of 0.16 dB/km, thereby extending it to 173 km without using distributed, remotely pumped, or in-line amplifiers. When using the most widespread standard telecom fiber with an attenuation of 0.185 dB/km, the operating distance can be increased by 48 km (up to 152 km total).

Show Abstract## Using an Artsimovich Railgun for Return from the Moon

## Using an Artsimovich Railgun for Return from the Moon

### M. V. Sazhin$^1$, M. V. Safonova$^2$, V. N. Sementsov$^1$

Nonstandard techniques to deliver a payload from the Moon to Earth are explored. Two approaches are compared, which are based on using a space elevator and an acceleration device, the Artsimovich railgun. The energy needed to launch a payload to a low lunar orbit and the $L_1$ libration point in the Earth–Moon system is estimated. We conclude that the railgun is economically advantageous compared to the space elevator and standard jet technologies.

Show Abstract## The Effect of Hydrogenation on the Magetocaloric Properties of Nanocrystalline Terbium

## The Effect of Hydrogenation on the Magetocaloric Properties of Nanocrystalline Terbium

### Yu. V. Korneeva$^1$, G. S. Burkhanov$^2$, V. B. Chzhan$^1$, I. S. Tereshina$^1$

In this study, the effect of hydrogenation on the magnetocaloric properties of extra-pure nanocrystalline terbium was investigated. The investigated compositions were TbHx, where $x = 0 – 1.2$ at H/arb.u. In addition to the major phase $\alpha$-TbH$_x$, all the specimens contained a certain amount of a second phase, terbium dihydride ($\beta$-TbH$_2$). For TbH$_x$ specimens, the effect of hydrogenation on magnetocaloric properties was studied by both direct and indirect methods. The magnetocaloric effect was shown to decrease in a nearly linear fashion with increasing hydrogen content in the specimens.

Show Abstract## Piecewise constant signal estimation by the registration result in a linear scheme

## Piecewise constant signal estimation by the registration result in a linear scheme

### N. G. Mikheev, A. I. Chulichkov, V. A. Antonyuk

This paper proposes a method and an algorithm for piecewise constant signal reconstruction by the registration result obtained by device, the effect of which can be described by a linear operator (blur) and an additive noise. The form of the linear operator and statistical properties of the noise are known. The range of the piecewise constant signal is also assumed to be given. The investigation of the piecewise constant signal reconstruction accuracy dependence on the number of possible signal values was carried out.

Show Abstract## High power W-band extended interaction klystron with hollow electron beam

## High power W-band extended interaction klystron with hollow electron beam

### V. Y. Rodyakin$^1$, V. M. Pikunov$^1$, V. N. Aksenov$^{1,2}$

The results of theoretical analysis of electron beam optics system and interaction region of the high power W-band extended interaction klystron with hollow electron beam are prezented. The computer code PARS is used for numerical simulation. As result of optimization, the design of extended interaction klystron with 6 maltigap cavities has been developed. The klystron provides output power about 8.6 kW with 56 dB gain, 32% electronic efficiency and 40% total efficiency with depressed collector. Developed double-stage depressed collector shows beam energy recovery efficiency 54% in dynamic regime with taking into account of secondary electron emission from collector’s walls.

Show Abstract## Thermal-Magnetic properties of terbium before and after severe plastic deformation

## Thermal-Magnetic properties of terbium before and after severe plastic deformation

### Yu. V. Korneeva, V. B. Chzhan, I. S. Tereshina, T. P. Kaminskaya

The structure, thermal and magnetothermal properties of the rare-earth metal terbium, which has been purified and then subjected to the procedure of intensive plastic deformation (SPD), are studied. The original Tb sample and the deformed one contain nanoscale structural elements, which is confirmed by AFM studies. In high-purity Tb, the magnitude of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the region of transition to the paramagnetic state exceeds the (MCE) values shown by Tb samples that have not passed the purification procedure. It was found that the FEM practically disappears in the deformed sample. The magnetic properties of samples in the paramagnetic region are analyzed. It is established that the method of intensive plastic deformation allows to obtain a material with new thermal and magnetothermal properties, due to the transformation of the structure, exchange and magnetocrystalline interactions.

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