Radiophysics, electronics, acoustics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 83

The experimental and theoretical study results of the impact atmospheric discharge propagating over the liquid surface velocity dependence from it conductivity are presenting.

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Biophysics and medical physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 105

The proposed approach to the evolution of the universe and life on Earth is based on general physical principles that lead to the assertion that their rise was made possible through the chain of emergence and collapse of symmetries in the states of dynamic systems. The hypothesis is proposed and substantiated that the phylogenetic law of Haeckel (each species in its ontological development repeats its evolutionary history) might be extended so that it would include two processes that are comparable from the point of view of biophysics: the emergence of the discrete predecessors of the cell in the ancient Ocean and initial stages of embryogenesis. A new proposition is made and grounded that formation of the two fundamental biological asymmetries (cellular-ionic and molecular-chiral) are similar and constitute coupled bifurcations that gave rise to life on the Earth and the individual life of multicellular organisms. This work aims to resolve the principal contradiction between the notions of the essentially thermodynamic non-equilibrium nature of all living cells and conventional equilibrium models of their origination. The authors and their colleagues give the first experimental evidence that the original deviation of the predecessors of living cells from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium may be directly related to the spontaneous generation of the two fundamental biological asymmetries (ionic and molecular) in the ocean’s thin surface layer. The ionic asymmetry predefined the ability of discrete protocells to react to external stimuli, which was a necessary condition of their inclusion into the process of biological evolution, whereas the chiral asymmetry predetermined the unique molecular stereospecificity of carbon compounds in the processes of biosynthesis and metabolism. Concerning amino acids, chiral asymmetry may also be extended to embrace participation of their D-isomers in the regulation of the most important stages of ontogenesis, while earlier it was deemed only as an underpinning of the principle of the “chiral purity of the biosphere,” within which solely the inclusion of amino acid L-isomers in the ribosomal synthesis of proteins. The enantiomers of biologically important chiral substances are able to not only play a key role in complementary interaction but also serve as a logical element for switching information and not only at the level of simple coding of the “yes/no” type but also at the level of conversion of “sensible” signals.

Show AbstractR e g u l a r p a p e r s

Theoretical and mathematical physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 116

One of the most widely-used stochastic prognosis methods for estimating the reserves of mineral resources, namely the method of kriging, is considered. A modification of this method based on the assumption of local stationarity of the spatial variable is proposed. The modified kriging method, in combination with a morphological algorithm for detecting the subdomains of local stationarity is shown to be in good agreement with the a priori ideas on data structure. This makes it possible to decrease computational efforts for the forecasting procedure as compared to the standard kriging technique.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 122

The paper is devoted to mathematical modeling of rectangular dielectric waveguides with local periodic and fractal insets. A three-dimensional scalar boundary-value problem for the Helmholtz equation is considered. The solution is obtained numerically by means of incomplete Galerkin method and finite-difference techniques. The transmission spectra for one-, two- and three-dimensional periodic and fractal insets are computed and compared with each other. Practical applications are suggested.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 129

An expression for the angular displacement of planets caused by their Newtonian interaction with each other is derived. In some cases, numerical results that follow from it differ from those published earlier (without specifying from where and how they were obtained). As a consequence, the remainder of the relativistic gravitational advance of the Mercury perihelion (after the observational data analysis) exceeds the value that was known before by more than one and a half times and follows from general relativity. However, this remainder value is in a very good agreement with the theoretical value that occurs if i) we acknowledge the material nature of the gravitational field of the Sun and ii) we uncover its physical contribution to the matter energy-momentum tensor in the Hilbert-Einstein equations.

Show AbstractPhysics of nuclei and elementary particles

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 135

Yields of photonucleon reactions of different multiplicity of natural isotopic mixture of Pb were measured on a bremsstrahlung photon beam with a maximum energy of 67.7 MeV using gamma-activation methods. Cross-sections of photonucleon reactions of different multiplicity were calculated on stable Pb isotopes within the bounds of the combined model. The calculated cross sections are compared to those measured in experiments on quasimonochromatic photon beams. They are also used to split the measured yields into yields of particular photonucleon reactions.

Show AbstractRadiophysics, electronics, acoustics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 142

Fluctuations in the positions of two rays propagating in a medium with random permittivity inhomogeneities are considered. The problem solution is based on the ray diffusion method. The density of probabilities for the difference in ray positions is obtained for the case when the initial distance between the rays is much smaller than the correlation radius of permittivity fluctuations.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 196

The results of an experimental study of pulsed discharge propagation over liquid in air under atmospheric pressure at various values of liquid resistance are presented.

Show AbstractOptics and spectroscopy. Laser physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 147

A model description of molecular medium spectra during phase transitions in cylindrical nanopores is developed based on the thermodynamic concept of surface adsorption and capillary condensation. Good agreement of the calculated and experimental spectra measured during carbon dioxide adsorption and condensation in pores of nanoporous Vycor glass with a diameter of 2 nm is obtained. The constructed model connects the behavior of the medium spectra with the characteristics of the porous structure of a material and can be used for their determination based on spectroscopic data.

Show AbstractCondensed matter physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 155

Results of the simulation of diffusion and phase formation in lamellar Fe-Zr systems subject to sequential isothermal annealing are presented. The simulation is performed in the framework of a physical model whose basis is Darken’s phenomenological theory and the mechanism of mutual diffusion of components along continuous phase channels in two-phase regions of the system. The results of simulation agree well with the data obtained using Mossbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry; this indicates that the character of phase transformations in the studied lamellar systems is determined by the change of local component concentration in the course of mutual diffusion and corresponds to the specific features of phase diagram of equilibrium states of the binary system.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 162

The effect of electron state hybridization on phononless hopping conductivity in a disordered system of point localization centers in the intermediate frequency range corresponding to electron transitions to distant centers is discussed. When the basis of the atom-type localized functions is applied, with the hybridization of the wave functions of the distant centers not being taken into account, the frequency dependence of phononless conductivity is shown to be superlinear and monotonic in a wide frequency range. In this case, the kink in the vicinity of a crossover from a linear to a quadratic frequency dependence of the conductivity turns out to be sharper as distinct from the standard theory.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 169

Thin films of composite polymers based on polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF), with ferroelectric fillers of No-Zr-Ti-Pb (NZTP-l) were used to study the dielectric properties of the composites; specifically, we obtained the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity at various frequencies at various contents of filler piezoceramic in the polymers. Measurements were conducted using the bridge method and with the thermal noise method. In the studies with the bridge method, the range of the frequencies was 25 Hz-1 MHz; in the studies with the thermal noise method, the frequencies varied from 1 to 100 kHz.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 174

The temperature dependences of liquid cesium resistivity are calculated using smooth nonlocal model pseudopotentials (SNMP). The calculations were performed for temperatures of 35, 150, 280, 310, 470, and 630°C, both with temperature-dependent SNMP parameter variations and without them. The SNMP parameters of liquid cesium were determined based only on the experimental values of free ion terms without applying any methods of adjustment to the electrical resistivity of cesium. Application of SNMP makes it possible to substantially improve the similarity of the temperature dependences for calculated and experimentally obtained electrical resistivities of liquid cesium as compared to the calculations based on local model potentials.

Show AbstractMoscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 180

A method for the determination of parameters of the surface layer (thickness and refraction index) at the liquid-vapor interface in binary liquid mixtures was developed. The parameters of the surface layer for the C$_7$H$_{14}$-C$_7$F$_{14}$ liquid mixture in the vicinity of the critical point, which was studied by means of ellipsometry in [1], were calculated using the proposed method. The temperature dependences of the thickness and refraction index that were determined in the homogeneous isotropic layer approximation at the interface liquid-vapor, show structural peculiarities that were not observed earlier. Their appearance is explained by the possible influence of hydrodynamic processes at the boundary.

Show AbstractChemical physics, physical kinetics, and plasma physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 184

The feasibility of plasma cleaning of the multilayer mirrors used in 13.5-nm EUV lithography from carbon contaminations is studied. Experiments conducted in electrodeless plasma of the surface-wave low-pressure discharge in helium and hydrogen demonstrated the high rate, efficiency, and selectivity of this cleaning without any damage of the mirror’s upper protection layer, even at the atomic level. The optimal working parameters of plasma cleaning are determined and its possible mechanism is discussed.

Show AbstractBiophysics and medical physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 190

Aqueous solutions of major serum proteins (albumin and g-globulin) with small concentrations of potassium and europium ions were investigated with the use of photon-correlation spectroscopy and atomicforce microscopy. The coefficients of translation diffusion, as well as the effective radiuses of the scattering particles in the solutions as a function of pH and salt concentration, were obtained. It was found that protein dipole nanoclusters form in these solutions, which was confirmed by AFM methods as well.

Show AbstractB r i e f r e p o r t s

Theoretical and mathematical physics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 126

The completeness of the system of eigenvectors $H_n$ of a quadratic operator sheaf that occurs in the theory of electromagnetic waveguides is proven. The completeness of another system of eigenvectors of the spectral problem of waveguide theory that was considered in another formulation that was established earlier is used in the proof.

Show AbstractRadiophysics, electronics, acoustics

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 200

The results of an analysis of the action of a nonresonance external harmonic electromagnetic field on a quantum oscillator whose active medium is a two-level spin system, i.e. spin oscillator are briefly presented. The role of external field polarization in the dynamics of a nonautonomous spin oscillator is demonstrated. For the circular polarization of a nonresonance external field the shift of oscillation frequency of the spin oscillator is observed. For the linear polarization of a nonresonance external field the specific feature of spin oscillator synchronization at the third overtone of external field frequency is observed, along with an oscillation frequency shift.

Show AbstractAstronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology

Moscow University Physics Bulletin 2011. **66**. N 2. P. 203

The concept of statistical homogeneity and isotropy for vector fields for cosmological models with multiply connected space sections is analyzed. Considering a flat 3D torus as an example, it is shown that the correlation tensor of a statistically homogeneous and isotropic (locally) solenoidal vector field in this case depends on a countable set of functions corresponding to various classes of geodesics connecting the points in which the tensor is calculated. In contrast, such a tensor in a simply connected Universe depends on just one function.

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